Aspectual Examples

Húáti: Boá. Rrí, Here are examples for the first two positions. More will come tomorrow for the subsubaspects.

Verb Modes:

  • Imperfective: llár á üsk-á-es The man is in the act of going. (Begun, ongoing action which is incomplete.) IMPF «á»
  • Perfective: llár á üsk-ó-es The man went. (Completed action.) PERF «ó»
  • Progressive: llár á üsk-íy-es The man is going. (Ongoing action, with no respect to beginning or end.) PROG «íy»
  • Usitative: llár á üsk-wó-es The man normally goes. (Customary action.) USE «wó»
  • Iterative: llár á üsk-éll-es The man frequently goes. (Regularly and customarily.) ITE «éll»

The Primary aspects:

  • Momentaneous: llár á üsk-ó-as-es The man went then. (Punctually (takes place point in time).) MOM «as»
  • Continuative: llár á fürt á li üsk-íy-aïn-es The man is going to the manor-house. (Indefinite timespan & movement with specified direction.) CONT «aïn»
  • Durative: thicík dáo-(w)ó-úmi It rained (for a long time). (Indefinite span of time, non-locomotive uninterrupted continuum.) DUR «úmi»
  • Repetitive: llár á tuáta ngo á li üsk-ó-icík-es The man went to all the islands. (Continuum of repeated acts or connected series of acts.) REP «icík»
  • Conclusive: thicík dáo-(w)ó-úmü It rained (and now is not raining). (As durative, in perfective ends with static sequel.) CONC «úmü»
  • Semelfactive: llár á tuáta á li üsk-íy-op-es The man goes to an island as he goes to all the islands (Single act in repetitive series of acts.) SEM «op»
  • Distributive – thuonéna á héch-ó-été-éna The sea turned (“turns the tide”, changes in every wave) (distributive manipulation of objects or performance of actions.) DIST «été»
  • Diversative – brrunéna á hunhew-ó-óda-éna The forest breathed, caused wind (by using every tree) (movement distributed among things (similar to distributive).) DIV «óda»
  • Reversative – llár á héch-ó-ïka-éna The man turned around (Result in directional change.) REVS «ïka»
  • Transitional – thuonéna á héch-ó-(w)oho-éna The sea turned (into a storm sea) (Shift from one state to another.) TRAN «oho»

So… That’s it for today. No vocab or sound.


In other news, I am completely drunk. Cousins are the best. And before I make a complete fool of myself, I am going to bed.

Tún krá fu dáo. Alcohol is part of me. (This is how you might say I am drunk. I’ll have to check in the morning when I can remember.)

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