Tûn Boá

Llárriésh Verbs

This is the official cheat sheet for all verbal information. This, not whatever I may have mistakenly posted, is probably the last word on the subject. By far, the hardest part of this language is the verbs. You'll see that below.

The Template:


  • Singular: -es (-yes following an e)
  • Paucal: -esh (-yesh following an e)
  • Plural: -on (-won following an o)
  • Intransitive: ôr. dín wichôres. He sells.
  • Transitive: âr. dín petla wichâres. He sells snails.
  • Ditransitive: îr. dín petla bingia wichîres. He sells children snails.
Verb Modes:
  • Imperfective: llár á üsk-á-es The man is in the act of going. (Begun, ongoing action which is incomplete.) IMPF «á»
  • Perfective: llár á üsk-ó-es The man went. (Completed action.) PERF «ó»
  • Progressive: llár á üsk-íy-es The man is going. (Ongoing action, with no respect to beginning or end.) PROG «íy»
  • Usitative: llár á üsk-wó-es The man normally goes. (Customary action.) USE «wó»
  • Iterative: llár á üsk-éll-es The man frequently goes. (Regularly and customarily.) ITE «éll»
The Primary aspects:
  • Momentaneous: llár á üsk-ó-as-es The man went then. (Punctually (takes place point in time).) MOM «as»
  • Continuative: llár á fürt á li üsk-íy-aïn-es The man is going to the manor-house. (Indefinite timespan & movement with specified direction.) CONT «aïn»
  • Durative: thicík dáo-(w)ó-úmi It rained (for a long time). (Indefinite span of time, non-locomotive uninterrupted continuum.) DUR «úmi»
  • Repetitive: llár á tuáta ngo á li üsk-ó-icík-es The man went to all the islands. (Continuum of repeated acts or connected series of acts.) REP «icík»
  • Conclusive: thicík dáo-(w)ó-úmü It rained (and now is not raining). (As durative, in perfective ends with static sequel.) CONC «úmü»
  • Semelfactive: llár á tuáta á li üsk-íy-op-es The man goes to an island as he goes to all the islands. (Single act in repetitive series of acts.) SEM «op»
  • Distributive – thuonéna á héch-ó-été(y)-éna The sea turned ("turns the tide", changes in every wave). (Distributive manipulation of objects or performance of actions.) DIST «été»
  • Diversative – brrunéna á hunhew-ó-óda-éna The forest breathed, caused wind (by using every tree). (Movement distributed among things (similar to distributive).) DIV «óda»
  • Reversative – llár á héch-ó-ïka-éna The man turned around. (Result in directional change.) REVS «ïka»
  • Transitional – thuonéna á héch-ó-(w)oho-éna The sea turned (into a storm sea). (Shift from one state to another.) TRAN «oho»
The Subsubaspects:
  • Completive: llár á üsk-ó-as-uso-es The man went (and that's that.) (Event/action simply takes place.) COMP «uso»
  • Terminative: llár á üsk-ó-as-úkti-es The man went (but then stopped). (Stopping of action.) TERMV «úkti»
  • Stative: thicík tuáta óll dáo-(w)ó-úmi-on It is always raining among islands. (Sequentially durative and static.) STAT «on»
  • Inceptive: llár á üsk-á-as-ícú-es The man started to go. (Beginning of action.) INC «ícú»
  • Terminal: llár á tuáta á li üsk-íy-icík-íkti-es The man is going to all of the islands (once to each of them). (Inherently terminal action.) TERML «íkti»
  • Prolongative: llár á üsk-á-aïn-ow-es The man is still beginning to go somewhere. (Arrested beginning or ending of action.) PROL «ow»
  • Seriative: llár á tuáta á li üsk-á-icík-aké-(y)es The man is going from island to island. (Interconnected series of successive separate & distinct acts.) SER «aké»
  • Inchoative: thicík dáo-á-oho-uyo It is beginning to be rainy. (Focus on beginning of non-locomotion action.) INCH «uyo»
  • Reversionary: thicík dáo-á-oho-iá It is becoming rainy again. (Return to previous state/location.) REVN «»
  • Semeliterative: llár á üsk-wó-as-eék-es The man went again, as usual. (Single repetition of event/action.) SEML «eék»
Verbal Moods:

  • Interrogative: gô (post-positive, post-positional, or sentence final.) - questions.
    • rún gô whokópa gô wherepó gô whatwosh gô whendaha gô how, in what fashion, and ram gô which.
  • Indirect Speech: ho initial (post-positive)
  • Subordinate clauses: subject clipping + -shî
    • So far only attested in relative clauses
  • Conative: oú (post-positive) - attempted actions. llár oú á tuá á li üskóesThe man attempted to go to the island.
  • Conditionals: Faú (protasis) + fai (apodosis) + post-positive.
    • Fáu wéldhon á wusbóes, fái hui lláresh á tharkóasesh. If the ship sinks, then the men will definitely die.
    • Potential: Fáu wéldhon á wusbóes, fái gllhei lláresh á tharkóasesh. If the ship sinks, then the men will possibly die.
    • Tentative: Fáu wéldhon á wusbóes, fái huwí lláresh á tharkóasesh. If the ship sinks, then the men will probably die.
    • Eventive: Fáu wéldhon á wusbóes, fái hashoú lláresh á tharkóasesh. If the ship sinks, then the men may possibly die.
  • Deductive: ók (prepositional) - deduced. Yi, llamita fen á án dáowon. David ók llamióúmiákeyes. Oh, there are fish on the dock. David must have gone fishing.
  • Renarrative: ho (prepositional) - inferrential, oblique.
    • Dubitative Renarrative: horáo (post-positive) - Inferential, but speaker not convinced.
  • Dubitative: ráo (prepositional) - unsure about something.
  • Hypothetical: ruá (prepositional) - hypothetical events, fiction. like |garube.
  • Speculative: das (prepositional) - unsure, speculatory.
  • Imperative: da (post-positive) + no number agreement - commands
    • Requests: da (post-positive) + no number agreement + =kúnu (tone sandhi, sentence final)
    • Prohibitive: da (post-positive) + no number agreement + ro+ (negation; centralise, low tone)
  • Optative: null verbal suffixes (state subject outright if necessary) + ngíena (final) - hope, wishes
  • Deliberative: áde (post-positive) - requests, questions. Tún áde llamôres? Shall I fish?
    • Precative: áde (post-positive) + second person - requests, questions. Méth áde llamôres? Shall you fish? Can you please fish?
  • Hortative: wuá (post-positive) - encourage, implore. Tûn wuá llamôron! Let us fish! Méth wuá rollämôres! Please, do not fish!
  • Necessitative: hortative wuá (post-positive) + imperative da (post-post-positive). - necessity. Méth wuá da rollämôres! You must not fish!
  • Imprecative: yów (post-positive) - wish misfortune. Méth yów tharkes! May you die!
Modal Verbs:
  • dán probability – should
  • hweï future – will *
  • tunvá potentiality – may
  • sén necessity – must
  • guna definititiveness – shall
  • ucoï dare – dare
  • goy ability – able
  • adaní desire – want
  • thunka obligation – must
  • huçó attemptive – try

richard @ conlang . org